A panel (from the Latin pannus “a piece of cloth”) is a kind of monumental fine art, a decorative work designed to decorate a section of a wall or ceiling. Artistic panels, depending on the location, can harmoniously complement the interior of the room or the appearance of the facade of the building.
A panel, in contrast to a painting, is always closely connected in aesthetic and emotional perception with neighboring objects or objects. Its size, shape and content must be appropriate for its surroundings.
Types of panels
Panels can vary significantly in the following parameters:
- Dimensions (huge, large, medium, small).
- Artistic styles (baroque, rococo, abstractionism, realism, socialist realism, pop art, modern, classicism, romanticism).
- Genre (historical, everyday, landscape, portrait, battle, animalistic).
- Finishing features (with or without decorative framing).
- Surface type (smooth or embossed).
And yet, the most voluminous is the classification of panels according to the materials used to create them.
According to this criterion, works are distinguished:
- Drawn with paints (on plaster or on canvas). Stucco (plaster or concrete).
- Carved (wood or plastic).
- Mosaic (from ceramics, artificial or natural stone, fabric, plastic, decorative glass, leather).
- Printed (made on special printing equipment).
The creation of huge monumental panels requires significant time and financial costs. Dozens of workers of different specialties can work on the implementation of such a project. Small interior compositions are most often the result of the work of one master or a small group of artists.
The history of the panel
The history of the panel is inextricably linked with all the main types and techniques of fine art. The tradition of decorating the walls of majestic temples and palaces with artistic monumental compositions originated in the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Babylon. Numerous examples of wall paintings, mosaics and bas-reliefs of that era have survived to this day.
In Ancient Greece and Rome, the practice of creating mosaic panels from smalt for temples and houses of the nobility was widespread. Later, these traditions smoothly migrated to the Byzantine Empire, and from there to the countries of Western Europe.
The oldest examples of ceramic tile panels date back to the 3rd century BC.
They were found on the territory of modern Iran. Until the beginning of the 8th century, the art of wall decoration with ceramic tiles was limited to the borders of the Persian Empire. But with the beginning of the era of Arab conquests, the art of making ceramic panels spread throughout the Mediterranean. After the expulsion of the Arabs from Spain in the 14th century, European craftsmen also began to use ceramics to decorate the walls of buildings.
During the Renaissance, first in Italy and then in other European countries, monumental painting began to develop rapidly. Many outstanding masters of the Renaissance devoted a significant part of their work to the creation of frescoes. Stained glass compositions were widely used to decorate cathedrals and castles.
And in the following centuries, monumental panels have always remained a popular form of art. And since the middle of the twentieth century, interest in the original interior design of premises has grown significantly.
Contemporary artists have many new opportunities to implement the most original creative ideas. It is no coincidence that these days interior panels are in great demand among different categories of people. And the majestic monumental compositions from year to year continue to appear on the streets and squares of cities.
The most famous panels
Many monumental panels are well known all over the world. They attract crowds of tourists every day and delight the locals. Of the huge number of worthy works, three unique works of masters can be singled out separately in our article:
- “Procession of Princes” (Dresden, Germany) the largest porcelain panel on our planet consists of 25,000 tiles with a total area of 957 m². The composition, made in 1907, includes 94 foot and equestrian human figures. On it, viewers can watch a majestic procession surrounded by impressive ornaments.
- “Wall of Miro” (Ludwigshafen-am-Rhein, Germany) mosaic panel on the facade of the Wilhelm Hack Museum. The abstract composition is a collaborative effort between two artists Joan Miró and Joan Gardy Artigas. The mosaic tiles were made 1200 kilometers from the site in a small Catalan village in northeastern Spain.
- Spirit of Soho ”(London, Great Britain) a colorful mural on the wall of an elite house in one of the central districts of the British capital. In addition to the map of the area, the panel depicts famous people who have lived on the territory in different years. Among them are many world celebrities, including Karl Marx, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Giacomo Casanova.